William Porter McRoberts MD
Located in Fort Lauderdale, International Pain Management and Pain Medicine
Interventional Physiatry, Comprehensive Spine and Pain Medicine
A new beginning and a new understanding of life with less pain.
WE HAVE MOVED LOCATIONS!!!: 5601 North Dixie Highway.
Were just across the street from our old location in the Healthplex.
This website aims to educate you about what we do, why we do it and what you can expect when you see Dr. W. Porter McRoberts MD at the Holy Cross Interventional Spine and Pain Medicine Center.
"To Make Man (and Woman!) Whole"
This is our motto. Our aim is to return you to your life. Its a physiatric approach. It's a whole person approach.
Dr. McRoberts started and now serves as the medical director of Interventional Spine, Pain and Neurosurgery at Holy Cross Hospital. In addition to ACGME fellowship training at Emory University in Interventional Spine and Pain medicine he is double board certified in both pain medicine ABA/ABPMR and in physical medicine and rehabilitation/ABPMR. Post-graduate training in Medical Anthropology led Dr. McRoberts to his interest in Pain Medicine, training at University of Kentucky, then Loma Linda University for residency.
Dr. McRoberts has recently completed book chapters on Spinal Cord Stimulation for the American Academy of Pain Medicine, Comprehensive Textbook of Pain Medicine, current surgical approaches for spinal disc disorders, surgical approaches for peripheral nerve stimulation and surgical approaches for peripheral nerve field stimulation. He has recently published peer reviewed academic articles on reduction of incision size for spine procedures, as well as a large prospective study regarding a novel target for neuromodulation for low back pain. Dr. McRoberts regularly speaks and teaches nationally and internationally about the ever evolving and most creative approaches to chronic pain treatment. He is a contributing member of multiple spine and pain societies, works with and designs research for leading pain and spine therapeutic industry leaders and is principal investigator for multiple prospective FDA IDE trials in neuromodulation for pain, ultra-minimally invasive spine surgery, and novel injection techniques and drugs.
Dr. McRoberts believes pain is an extremely complex disease state, neuro-physiologically, musculo-skeletally and psychologically. It is never a single system problem and the treatments available, be they medical, surgical or interventional all present various considerations. His aim is to help find your path through them: least risk, most benefit. He hopes that in understanding the deepest mechanisms of pain he can reveal your pain’s weakness and treat you.
Lastly, he is credentialed to do every and all current interventional procedures, and has performed tens of thousands of procedures safely and effectively.
You don't have to go to Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland or to Mayo Clinic, Rochester to get the newest and safest approaches to pain and spine medicine. Come see us.
W i l l i a m P o r t e r M c R o b e r t s M D
5597 N Dixie Highway, Fort Lauderdale, Florida
2005-2006 ACGME Interventional Spine and Pain Medicine Fellowship, Emory University
2001-2005: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency, Loma Linda University
2001-2002: Internship: Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University
1997-2001: University of Kentucky School of Medicine
1995-1997: University of Kentucky Department of Medical Anthropology
1989-1993: BA Anthropology and Sociology, Centre College, Danville Kentucky.
American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation/-Pain Medicine
Fellow of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
DEVELOPED INTERVENTIONAL SPINE, PAIN AND NEUROSURGICAL
Currently Medical Director of Interventional Spine and Pain Medicine, Holy Cross Hospital, 2006-Present
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD, HOLY CROSS HOSPITAL 2008-2011
ACGME INTERVENTIONAL PAIN AND SPINE FELLOWSHIP 2005-2006 (Chief)
PM&R RESIDENCY 2002-2005 (Chief 2004-2005)
Loma Linda University Medical Center
INTERNAL MEDICNE INTERNSHIP 2001-2002
Loma Linda University Medical Center
UNIVERSITY ETHICS COMMITTEE 2002-2004.
Loma Linda University
RESIDENT ADVISORY COUNCIL 2002-2004
Loma Linda University
PROFESSIONAL CODE COMMITTEE 1999-2001: (Chair 2000-2001)
University of Kentucky Medical School
NIA, NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING, ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE RESEARCHER 9/95 to 9/97
Sanders Brown Center on Aging, Lexington, Ky.
PATIENT AND FAMILY SERVICES AND EDUCATION COMMITTEE (Chair 1995-2001
Alzheimer’s Association, Lexington, Ky.
BOARD MEMBER 1996-2001
Alzheimer’s Association, Lexington, Ky.
INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCHER FOR WILD RIDE by Client: Ann Hagedorn-Auerbach, Henry Holt and Co. 01/93 to 01/94
SURGICAL ASSISTANT & RESEARCH COORDINATOR 06/91 to 09/91
University of Kentucky Dept. of Orthopedics/Sports Medicine, Lexington, Ky.
RESEARCH ASSISTANT & LABORATORY TECHNICIAN 06/89 to 09/89, 06/88 to 09/88
University of Kentucky Dept. of Gynecological Oncology, Lexington
CURRENT AND PAST RESEARCH TRIALS:
National Primary Investigator: US IDE: SENSE: St Jude Neuromodulation Prospective Randomized Trial Hybrid Neuromodulation for Pain from Failed Back Surgery Syndrome.
Primary Investigator: US IDE: Medtronic IND 104850 – “An Open-Label, Sequential, Dose Escalation Study of the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy of MDT-15 in Subjects with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy”
Primary Investigator: US IDE: A Prospective, Randomized, Multi-Center, Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Spinal Modulation™ AXIUM™ Neurostimulator System in the Treatment of Chronic Pain (ACCURATE Trial.
Primary Investigator: US IDE: Bioness StimRouter: Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Partial Crossover Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Bioness® StimRouter™ Neuromodulation System in the Treatment for Patients With Chronic Pain of Peripheral Nerve Origin
Primary Investigator: MiDAS ECO: Mild Decompression Alternative to Open Surgery Epidural Steroid Injection Comparative Outcomes Study in patients Diagnosed with Moderate to Severe Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Exhibiting Neurogenic Claudication.
Primary Investigator: St. Jude Neuromodulation: DEPTH: A retrospective untrasound study of electrode depth in peripheral nerve field stimulation and analysis of cross-talk on field size with electrode configurations.
Primary Investigator: St. Jude Neuromodulation: Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial: Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for the Management of Localized Chronic Intractable Back Pain
Primary Investigator: St. Jude Neuromodulation: IMPACT Retrospective Evaluation and Data Collection Study to Evaluate the Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients with Neurostimulation using a Combination of Epidural and Subcutaneous Peripheral Field Leads
Posters, Presentations, Publications and Research:
McRoberts WP, Webster L, Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain. Pro: Lynn Webster MD, Con:W. Porter McRoberts MD. Pain 2013, Palm Beach Florida, July 2013.
McRoberts WP, Barolat G, Advancing neuromodulation outside the Spine: Peripheral Neruromodulatory Approcahes, the Past Present and Future. Pain 2013, Palm Beach Florida, July 2013.
McRoberts WP, Percutaneous, ultra-minimally invasive surgical techniques for posterior decompression of spinal stenosis. Third International Conference on Interventional Pain Medicine and Neuromodulation, Warsaw, Poland June, 2013
McRoberts WP, Goroszeniuk T, Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the treatment of joint pain. First International Symposium on Peripheral Neuromodulation, Warsaw, Poland June 2013
McRoberts WP, Cairns KD. A Novel approach to paddle lead placement for occipital neuralgia: Use of the Epiducer lead placement system for paddle GON placement. Accepted as Poster: International Neuromodulation Society 2013, Berlin.
McRoberts WP. Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation and Trigeminal Facial Stimulation: Cross-Talk for Facial Pain in Facial Neuralgias. Accepted as Poster: International Neuromodulation Society 2013, Berlin
McRoberts WP. Wolkowitz RM, Meyer DJ, Lipov EG, Joshi J, Davis B, Cairns KD, Barolat G. Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for the Management of Localized Chronic Intractable Back Pain: Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. Accepted for Publication: Neuromodulation, Technology at the Neural Interface, 2013.
McRoberts WP, Goroszeniuk T. Peripheral Neuromodulatory Approaches for Articular Pain. First Annual International Peripheral Neuromodulation Symposium 2013, Warsaw.
McRoberts WP. Peripheral Neuromodulation: A Current state of affairs. First Annual International Peripheral Neuromodulation Symposium 2013, Warsaw.
McRoberts WP, Barolat G. Surgical and Percutaneous approaches to peripheral Neuromodulation. WVSIPP. Palm Beach, 2013.
McRoberts WP, Wu PW, Bentley I. Effect of a Novel Fixation Method for Spinal Cord Stimulators: Spinal Cord Stimulation Incision Size. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2012 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2012.00499.x.
AAPMR acadameÒ Pain Pearls Case #1: Management of Lumbar Herniated Nucleus Pulposis, webinar and lecture. 2011.
McRoberts WP, Cairns KD, Doleys DM. Spinal Cord Stimulation: Patient Selection, Psychologic Screening, Surgical Techniques and Troubleshooting. IN: Deer T, et al. (eds) COMPREHENSIVE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN BY MEDICAL, INTERVENTIONAL, AND INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES ,The American Academy of Pain Medicine Textbook on Patient Management
McRoberts WP, Cairns KD, Current Surgical Options for the Treatment of Cervical and Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease, IN: Kapural L (ed) Diagnosis, Management, & Treatment of Discogenic Pain, Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2011.
Pain Education Society-WVSIPP, Spinal Cord Stimulation: Classic Uses and Proven Concepts New Horizons, Provocative and Future Use. Miami, June 2012.
Cleveland Clinic 14th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting, Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for Low Back Pain. Las Vegas, Jan, 2012
Cleveland Clinic 14th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting, The Role of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty (Adhesiolysis) in the Treatment of Low Back and Leg Pain. Las Vegas, Jan, 2012
Current Treatment Options: Post Herpetic Neuralgia, Pain Pathways Magazine, March 2011,
Peripheral Nerve and Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for the Painful Extremity, McRoberts WP, Cairns KD, IN: Slavin K, (ed) Prog Neurol Surg. 2011;24:156-70. Epub 2011 Mar 21.
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Truncal Pain, Cairns KD, McRoberts WP, IN: Slavin K, (ed) Prog Neurol Surg 2011;24:58-69. Epub 2011 Mar 21
Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation Using Subcutaneous Placement of Neurostimulation Leads in the Treatment of Localized Chronic Intractable Pain of the Lumbar Area. Wolkowitz, RM, Meyer DJ, McRoberts WP, Lipov EG, Joshi J, Davis B, Cairns KD, Barolat G. Oral and Poster Presentation, International Neuromodulation Society Meeting 2010, London England.
Novel Programming Techniques in Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation PNfS for the Treatment of Chronic Knee Pain Following Knee Surgery, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
Combined Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation for the Control of Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
Revision Techniques in Peripheral Nerve Filed Stimulation, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation For Lumbar Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: a Case Report, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
Chronic Refractory Temporomandibular Joint Pain Well Treated With Peripheral Field Nerve Stimulation, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
A Case Report of Successful Implantation of a Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulator System in a Cachecticly Thin Man With a Comfortable IPG Pocket Despite Extreme Superficiality, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
DEPTH: A Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effects of Electrode Depth and Spacing for Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation in Patients with Back Pain. McRoberts WP, Cairns KD. Industry Supported Research, Poster Presentation: North American Neuromodulation Society Annual Meeting 2010
Placement of a Peripheral Nerve Stimulator for Successful Treatment of Intractable Tremor Following Peripheral Nerve Injury, W. Porter McRoberts MD, Anil Samson MBBS; Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Kevin Cairns, MD, MPH; South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
Combination Thoracic Spinal Cord Stimulation and Peripheral Subcutanous Field Stimulator for Intractable Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome, W. Porter McRoberts MD, Paul Wu MD, Anil Samson MBBS; Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Kevin Cairns, MD, MPH; South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
Three Anode, Single Cathode “3A1C”: A Case Report of Three Patients With Four Lead Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation (PNfS) Systems Using Novel Programming Parameters., W. Porter McRoberts MD, Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Kevin Cairns, MD, MPH; South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
A Retrospective Evaluation and Data Collection Study to Evaluate the Treatment of Chronic Pain Patients with Neurostimulation using a Combination of Epidural and Subcutaneous Peripheral Field Leads, Wolkowitz, RM, Meyer DJ, McRoberts WP, Lipov EG, Joshi J, Davis B, Cairns KD, Barolat G.Industry Supported, Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
Ongoing: A prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of percutaneous peripheral field neuromodulation for the treatment of chronic, refractory axial low back pain in failed back surgery syndrome. Industry Supported, Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009, American Academy of Pain Medicine in San Antonio on February 3rd-6th, 2010.
Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulator (PNfS) Lead Placement for the Treatment of Chronic Post-operative Flank Pain Kevin Cairns MD, MPH; Cami Dunham PA-C, South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL; W. Porter McRoberts MD, Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL., Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
“Tenting” Technique for the Placement of Electrical Leads for Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation, Kevin D. Cairns MD, MPH; South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL; W. Porter McRoberts MD, Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Cami Dunham PA, SFSC Fort Lauderdale, FL; Giancarlo Barolat MD, Barolat Institute, Denver, Colorado; and Timothy Deer MD, The Center for Pain Relief, Charleston, West Virginia. Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
The Placement of Four Versus Two Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulator Leads for the Treatment of Chronic Axial Low Back Pain. Kevin Cairns, MD, MPH; South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL Cami Dunham PA-C South Florida Spine Clinic, W. Porter McRoberts MD; Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
Placement of Cervical and Lumbar Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulator (PNfS) leads for widespread pain secondary to Scheuermann’s Syndrome. Kevin Cairns MD, MPH; Cami Dunham PA, South Florida Spine Clinic, Fort Lauderdale, FL; W. Porter McRoberts MD, Holy Cross Hospital, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Poster Presentation North American Neuromodulation Conference 2009
McRoberts WP, Roche M. Novel approach for peripheral subcutaneous field stimulation for the treatment of severe, chronic knee joint pain after total knee arthroplasty. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface,2010, 13: 131–136. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1403.2009.00255.
McRoberts, W. Porter, Sears, Robert. Meditations on the Iconography of the Stethoscope, Semiotics Yearbook 1998, Spinks, CW and Deely, J, Eds. 1999:Peter Lang Publishers Inc.
Nelson, K., Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J., van Nagell, J.R., Gallion, H.H., Donaldson, E.S. & Kenady, D.E., McRoberts, W. P. & Pavlik, E.J. Intermolecular Engagement of Estrogen Receptors Indicated by the Formation of a High Molecular Weight Complex During Activation. Biochemistry 28: 9741-9749, 1989.
Talks and informal Presentations:
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation, Cleveland Clinic 15th Annual Pain Symposium Dinner: Spinal Cord Stimulation, New Technologies, Paddle vs Percutaneous Approaches and Management of Complications. Sarasota 2013.
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation, ASRA Dinner: Spinal Cord Stimulation, Management of Complications, and new technologies. Miami, 2012.
North American Neuromodulation Society, NANS 2011 Poster Meeting Awards Committee
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation, Course Moderator, Epiducer Surgical Training, December, 2011, Las Vegas.
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation, Course Moderator, Epiducer Surgical Training, October, 2011, AOA, Chicago, IL.
Understanding Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression and Laminotomy, First Coast Service Options/CMS, June 2011.
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation Moderator Foundations in Neuromodulation Pain Education Society June 2011, July 2011.
Options for treating chronic pain resulting from post-knee replacement and failed back surgery syndrome, Pain Education Society/WVSIPP Meeting, Huntington Beach CA June 2011
Opioid Toxicity in the Acute Inpatient Setting: Grand Rounds Holy Cross Hospital, May 2011.
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation Moderator/Speaker Foundations in Neuromodulation Cleveland Clinic Pain Meeting March 2011
Opioid Toxicity in the Acute Inpatient Setting: Grand Rounds Holy Cross Hospital, December 2010.
Peripheral Field Neuromodulation Advisory Board, Las Vegas Dec, 2010
Neuromodulation Physician Leadership Roundtable, Scottsdale AZ November, 2010
Vertos Medical, Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression Training (MILD) April 24-25, 2010
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation Faculty and Course Moderator– April 17, 2010, Feb. 19-20, 2010
St. Jude Medical Neuromodulation Speaker/Moderator Foundations in Neuromodulation Cleveland Clinic Meeting 2010 March 6th, 2010
St. Jude Medical NMD Product Training, Faculty and Course Moderator– January 22-24, 2010
Percutaneous Thoracic and Lumbar Facet Fusion Training, September, 2009
Overview of Spinal Cord Stimulation: Florida Association of Physician Assistants, July 23, 2009
Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation Round Table, Moderator March 13, 2009
Minimally Invasive Tru-Fuse Facet Fusion Training, August 2008
Advances In Non-Surgical Low Back Pain Management, Dinner with the Doctor, October 2008
Theory and Technique: Implantable Pain Therapies Workshop: Medtronic, Oct. 8 &9, 2005.
Frontiers of Neuromodulation Workshop: Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Oct. 22nd & 23rd, 2005.
Pain syndromes in Adults with Spina Bifida and Menigomyelocele: a retrospective clinical review and case series. June 2005.
The Physical Examination of the Painful Knee-February 2005
The Physical Examination of the Lumbar Spine for the Primary Care Physician: When to Refer. February 2005
A Critical Review of the Evidence for Hyperbaric Oxygenation-January 2005
American Pain Society Meeting-May 2004
2004-2005 American Pain Society/ Canadian Pain Society Meeting
Kinesiology, Injury and Rehabilitation of the Dancing Lower Extremity-April, 2004
The Kinesiology of Normal Gait-Feb, 2004
Cryotherapy: The Therapeutic and Physiologic Effects of Cold-October, 2003
The Etiology and Management of Anterior Knee Pain in the Young Adult-June, 2003
The Hip- Pathophysiology and Management of Hip Disorders-January, 2003
Rehabilitation and the Neurologic and Systemic Manifestations of Cancer-December, 2002
2013-Present Editorial Reviewer: Clinical Neuroradiology
2012-Present Pain Advisory Board
2011- Present AAPMR academe faculty
2011-2012 Consultant Vertos Medical
2011-Present Consultant Medtronic Sanofi-Aventis
2010-Present Peripheral Nerve Field Advisory Board
2010-Present Faculty: Pain Education Society
2010-Present Editorial Reviewer: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural interface
2010-2011 Consultant Bioness Inc.
2009-Present Faculty Neuromodulation Academy
2009-Present President Southeast Neuromodulation Associates Inc.
2009-2010 Consultant Boston Scientific Neuromodulation
2008-Present Medical Director Dept. Pain Medicine, Holy Cross Hospital
2007-Present Consultant, Speaker and Research Affiliate, St. Jude Neuromodulation
2005-2006 Chief Fellow
2005 Occupational Medicine Residency Internal Review Committee
2004-05 Chief Resident
2004-2005 American Pain Society Resident Honorarium
2001: Health Care Foundation of New Jersey Humanism in Medicine Award and Grant
North American Spine Society
American Academy of Pain Medicine
American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians
Florida Society of Interventional Pain Physicians
West Virginia Society of Interventional Pain Physicians
International Neuromodulation Society
North American Neuromodulation Society
Fellow, The American Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Why would you want a consult with me?
I take my mission very seriously: to try and help others live fuller lives through the elimination of or control of pain.
Pain robs us of the very essence of humanity. It steals the ability to concentrate on what makes us complete as people. We can’t enjoy our lives, our work, our children, or any of the things that make life worth the effort if the loud roar of pain overcomes our thinking.
What I enjoy the most is the creative approach with minimally invasive technology to treat very difficult pain problems. I’m very tenacious. I know and understand the entire compendium of pain medicine and I’ve developed, patented, published and presented many novel approaches to treat pain.
That being said- sometimes pain is easily treated with just the right medicine or medicine placed in exactly the right spot.
I get great satisfaction from seeing and treating patients and I love my job.
I’ll be pleased to meet you and give you my best.
Please also know my esteemed partners:
Paul W. Wu, MD
Carlos Casas-Reyes, MD
Ricardo Matos, MD
Martin Roche, MD
Brian Fingado, MD
William Leone, MD
Gordon Hill, MD
Robert Mills, MD
Jose Jackson, MD
Jennifer Boeri, DPM
LLoyd (Rick) Cope, MD
Verano M. Hermida, MD
Jonathon C. Levy, MD
Fernando J. Manalac, MD
Frank McCormick, MD
Christopher J. Pappas, MD
Edward Williams, MD
Domingo Delgado, MD
You may read this website, and believe that you have learned something, but that does NOT replace having the education that comes from having a discussion with a doctor, ANY doctor. Anything you read here is subject to change, may need further explanation, may incompletely describe or fully disclose the risks or benefits of a treatment. This website is aimed at familiarizing you with my philosophy. It does not replace a consultation.
Medicine CANNOT be practiced over a website or through email. It cannot be practiced over a phone.
It MUST be done in real time, face to face.
I concede, and you must understand, that any information provided to a patient without full diagnostic and consultative review, in an office setting, constitutes only "generic information", and should never be used as a substitute for a clinical diagnosis.
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